By Tom Mulvey, Charles J.R. Sheppard

ISBN-10: 0120299127

ISBN-13: 9780120299126

The volumes during this sequence disguise the growth and innovation in optical and electron microscopy at a basic point. it truly is geared toward microscopists and researchers not just attracted to microscope instrumentation but additionally in purposes starting from organic ideas to fabrics examine and commercial inspection

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For example, inserting a λ/4 phase plate yields Zernike phase contrast. , 1979; Hanssen, 1980) ("holographic interferometry") one can generate interferograms for measuring the phase distribution with fringes matching best to the structure to be measured, choosing the fringe orientation and fringe spacing at will; for instance, superimposing the reconstructed wave and the reference wave in parallel yields a contour map with lines of equal phase moduli In. Examples are shown in Fig. 9. e. it is scanned by means of a densitometer and the optical density of every picture element ("pixel") is fed into a computer.

On applying a positive voltage to the filament both waves are deflected towards each other, overlapping mutually in the image plane. Following Wahl (1975) and Ade (1982), the effect of the biprism can be taken into account by means of a phase factor exp( ±i27i(R c r/2 + (R + Q)A/2)) electron (12) source object objective lens biprism intermediate image I FIG. 5 Schematic arrangement for recording image plane off-axis electron holograms. The object covers only half the object plane while the other half serves as a reference area.

2 Formation of phase contrast by means of the wave aberration of an aberrated objective lens. The path difference between the distorted and the spherical wave front in the back focal plane is described by the wave aberration χ(Κ) acting like a phase plate. In analogy to Fig. 1, a cosine grating with spatial frequency R0 is imaged in pure phase contrast if #(R0) equals an odd multiple of π/2, and in pure amplitude contrast if #(R0) is an even multiple of π/2. Generally, the amplitude contrast is given by the "amplitude contrast transfer function" 2cos(/(R)) and the phase contrast by the "phase contrast transfer function" 2sin(#(R)).

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Advances in optical and electron microscopy by Tom Mulvey, Charles J.R. Sheppard

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