By Gary Haynes
The quantity includes summaries of evidence, theories, and unsolved difficulties concerning the unexplained extinction of dozens of genera of regularly huge terrestrial mammals, which happened ca. 13,000 calendar years in the past in North the United States and approximately 1,000 years later in South the USA. one other both mysterious wave of extinctions affected huge Caribbean islands round 5,000 years in the past. The coupling of those extinctions with the earliest visual appeal of humans has resulted in the advice that foraging people are accountable, even supposing significant climatic shifts have been additionally happening within the Americas in the course of a few of the extinctions. The final released quantity with comparable (but no longer exact) subject matters -- Extinctions in close to Time -- seemed in 1999; due to the fact that then loads of leading edge, interesting new study has been performed yet has now not but been compiled and summarized. diversified chapters during this quantity offer in-depth resumés of the chronology of the extinctions in North and South the United States, the prospective insights into animal ecology supplied through reports of strong isotopes and anatomical/physiological features comparable to development increments in enormous and mastodont tusks, the clues from taphonomic examine approximately large-mammal biology, the functions of relationship the right way to the extinctions debate, and archeological controversies touching on human searching of huge mammals.
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Extra resources for American megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene
Curr Res Pleistocene 20:20–26 Borrero LA (2003) Taphonomy of the Tres Arroyos 1 Rockshelter, Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Quat Intl 109/110:87–93 Borrero LA, Zarate M, Miott L, Massone M (1998) The PleistoceneHolocene transition and human occupations in the Southern Cone of South America. Quat Intl 49/50:191–199 Bradley B, Stanford D (2004) The North Atlantic ice-edge corridor: A possible Paleolithic route to the New World. World Archaeol 36:459–478 Braun A, Pfeiffer T (2002) Cyanobacterial blooms as the cause of a Pleistocene large mammal assemblage.
Ohio J Sci, Abstracts of 95th Annual Meeting, April 25–27, Toledo Dyke AS, Andrews JT, Clark PU, England JH, Miller GH, Shaw J, Veillette JJ (2002a) The Laurentide and Innuitian ice sheets during the Last Glacial Maximum. Quat Sci Rev 21(1–3):9–31 Dyke AS, Moore A, Robertson L (2002b) Revised North American deglaciation maps. Paper presented at Annual Meeting Geological Society of America, Oct. 27–30, Denver, CO Elias SA, Short SK, Nelson CH, Birks HH (1996) Life and times of the Bering land bridge.
Stratified Sites South of the Corridor To the south and southeast of the corridor’s mouth, in the United States, indubitable kill or butchery sites of the Clovis era (11,200–10,800 BP, or 13,200–12,800 cal bp) are rare (Grayson and Meltzer, 2002, 2003). , Kimmswick). , Murray Springs, Jake Bluff [Bement and Carter, 2003]). Although the scarcity of sites has been marshaled as evidence against a significant human role in megafauna extinction, their number is actually impressive (Surovell and Waguespack, 2004) in view of both the narrow time-frame involved (only 400 years) and the likely proportion of humaninduced to natural deaths.
American megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene by Gary Haynes